Author(s): Chopra AK, Srivastava S, Kumar V, Pathak C
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Abstract The present study showed that irrigation of soil with different effluent concentrations (10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 \%) of distillery effluent (DE) for 60 days resulted in significant (P < 0.001) changes in moisture content; electrical conductivity (EC), pH, chlorides (Cl(-)), total organic carbon (TOC), exchangeable sodium (Na(+)), available potassium (K(+)), calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), iron (Fe(2+)), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), available phosphorus (P), and sulfate (SO4 (2-)) of soil. The non-significant (P > 0.05) changes were observed for water-holding capacity and bulk density of the soil. Among various concentrations of DE irrigation, irrigation with 100 \% effluent concentration increased moisture content, (24.85 \%), EC (77.88 \%), Cl(-) (285.95 \%), TOC (3,171.42 \%), exchangeable Na(+) (241.04 \%), available K(+) (52.49 \%), Ca(2+) (990.37 \%), Mg(2+) (1,751.72 \%), TKN (1,417.00 \%), available P (305.00 \%), and SO4 (2-) (75.32 \%) in the soil and decreased pH (-20.22 \%). The more stimulation in agronomical parameters such as shoot length, root length, number of leaves, flowers, pods, dry weight, fresh weight, chlorophyll content, leaf area index, and crop yield of A. esculentus were observed to be inversely proportional to the concentration of effluent water, with the best results being obtained at a dilution of 25 \% of DE concentration.
This article was published in Environ Monit Assess
and referenced in Advances in Crop Science and Technology