Author(s): Holland GN
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Abstract PURPOSE: To describe changes in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic that are important to ophthalmologists, to provide an overview of issues relevant to current evaluation and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related eye disease, and to identify problems related to the eye and vision that require continued study. DESIGN: Literature review and commentary. METHODS: Selected articles from the medical literature and the author's clinical and research experiences over 25 years were reviewed critically. RESULTS: The AIDS epidemic has had a profound impact on ophthalmology since the ophthalmic manifestations of AIDS were first described in 1982. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has markedly reduced the incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis, but has not eliminated new cases altogether. Treatment strategies for CMV retinitis have evolved over the past decade. Current issues of importance include choice of initial anti-CMV drugs; time at which anti-CMV drug treatment is discontinued in patients who achieve immune recovery; strategies for monitoring patients at risk for disease reactivation; and management of complications (retinal detachment, immune recovery uveitis). Attention also is being directed to the problem of visual disturbances (reduced contrast sensitivity, altered color vision, visual field abnormalities) that can occur in HIV-infected individuals without infectious retinopathies. CONCLUSIONS: Ocular disorders associated with HIV disease remain important problems in the United States, despite HAART, and increasingly are important worldwide. The approach to management of CMV retinitis has evolved from short-term treatment of a preterminal infection to the long-term management of what has become a chronic disease. Many challenges remain to be addressed.
This article was published in Am J Ophthalmol
and referenced in Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research