Author(s): Radisavljevic Z
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Abstract A positive feedback loops induce extreme robustness in metastatic cancer, relapsed leukemia, myeloma or lymphoma. The loops are generated by the signaling interactome networks of autocrine and paracrine elements from cancer hypoxic microenvironment. The elements of the networks are signaling proteins synthesized in hypoxic microenvironment such as the vascular endothelial growth factor, HIF-1α, hepatocyte growth factor, and molecules nitric oxide and H(2)O(2). The signals from upstream or rebound downstream pathways are amplified by the short or wide positive feedback loops, hyperstimulating AKT-inducing cancer extreme robustness. Targeting the phosphorylated AKT locus by an oxidant/antioxidant modulation induces collapse of positive feedback loops and establishment of negative feedback loops leading to stability of the system and disappearance of cancer extreme robustness. This is a new principle for the conversion of cancer positive loops into negative feedback loops by the locus chemotherapy. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
This article was published in J Cell Physiol
and referenced in Biological Systems: Open Access