Author(s): Marth E, Kleinhappl B
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Abstract A thiomersal-free and also an albumin-free tick-borne encephalitis-vaccine (TBE-vaccine) was developed. This vaccine was approved by the Austrian health authorities in the year 2000. Contrary to previous experience, 779 cases of fever attacks occurred following the first vaccination of children under 15 years of age. The induction of the immune system by different TBE virus (TBEV) vaccines (FSME-Immun , Ticovac  and FSME-Immun  all from Baxter Hyland Immuno, Vienna) was compared in an in vitro immune stimulation test in order to find an explanation for the unexpected fever attacks. It was shown that only Ticovac, which contains no albumin as a stabilizer, can induce relative high amounts of TNF-alpha (P < or = 0.0001) and lower amounts of IL-1 beta (P < or = 0.05). Increase of both cytokines is first observed following an incubation of 4 h. The maximum is reached after 15 h. After 26 h, it has reverted to the original value. The course of concentration of both cytokines corresponds to the time of observed febrile phases. Albumin or immunoglobulin prevents a rise of cytokines so that it is recommended to add the albumin again to the vaccine.
This article was published in Vaccine
and referenced in Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense