alexa Alloantigen specific T regulatory cells in transplant tolerance.
Immunology

Immunology

Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology

Author(s): Hall BM, Tran G, Hodgkinson SJ

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Abstract CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)T cells are regulatory/suppressor cells (Treg) that include non-antigen(Ag)-specific as well as Ag-specific Tregs. How non-Ag-specific naïve CD4(+)CD25(+)Treg develop into specific Tregs is unknown. We have studied DA rats tolerant to fully allogeneic PVG cardiac grafts that survived with out immunosuppression for over 100 days and identified the cellular basis of alloantigen specific tolerance. Key observations from our studies will be reviewed including how CD4(+)CD25(+)Tregs were first identified and the cytokine dependence of CD4(+)T cells that transfer alloantigen specific transplant tolerance which died in culture unless stimulated with both cytokine rich ConA supernatant and specific donor alloantigen. Both the tolerant CD4(+)CD25(+) and CD4(+)CD25(-) T cell populations are required to transfer tolerance, yet alone the CD4(+)CD25(-) T cell effect rejection. Tolerance transfer occurs with a low ratio of CD4(+)CD25(+)T cells (<1:10), whereas to induce tolerance with naive CD4(+)CD25(+)T cells requires both a ratio of >1:1 and is not alloantigen specific. Recent findings on how naïve CD4(+)CD25(+)T cells developed into two separated pathways of alloantigen specific Tregs, by culturing them with alloAg with either IL-2 or IL-4 and donor alloantigen are described. IL-2 enhances IFN-gammaR and IL-5 mRNA while IL-4 induced a reciprocal profile with de novo IL-5Ralpha and increased IFN-gamma mRNA expression. Both IL-2 and IL-4 alloactivated CD4(+)CD25(+)Tregs within 3-4 days of culture can induce alloantigen specific tolerance at ratios of 1:10. Long term, CD4(+)CD25(+)T cells from tolerant hosts given IL-2 cultured cells have increased IL-5 and IFN-gammaR mRNA; whereas hosts given IL-4 cultured cells had enhanced IL-5Ralpha mRNA expression and IL-5 enhanced their proliferation to donor but not third party alloAg. These findings suggest that Th1 and Th2 responses activate two pathways of alloantigen specific Tregs that can mediate transplant tolerance but are dependent upon cytokines produced by ongoing Th1 and/or Th2 immune responses. This article was published in Int Immunopharmacol and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology

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