Author(s): Giannini L, Vannacci A, Missanelli A, Mastroianni R, Mannaioni PF,
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Abstract INTRODUCTION: Fatalities due to mushroom poisonings are increasing worldwide, with more than 90\% of deaths resulting from ingestion of amatoxin-containing species. METHODS: A retrospective evaluation of the history and clinical outcome of each patient treated from 1988 to 2002 in the Toxicological Unit of Careggi General Hospital (University of Florence, Italy) for amatoxin poisoning. Data included the biological parameters monitored, the treatment protocols used (intensive fluid and supportive therapy, restitution of the altered coagulation factors, multiple-dose activated charcoal, mannitol, dexamethasone, glutathione, and penicillin G), and outpatient follow-up evaluations. RESULTS: The clinical data of 111 patients were evaluated; their biological parameters were monitored every 12-24 hours until discharge. Two patients died; both were admitted to the hospital more than 60 hours after mushroom ingestion. Of all the laboratory parameters evaluated, the evolution of hepatic transaminases and prothrombin activity over four days were the most predictive indicators of recovery or death. Our follow-up evaluation of 105 patients demonstrated that our survivors recovered completely. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience indicates that the protocol used in our Toxicologicy Unit is effective for amatoxin poisoning, and that all patients treated within 36 hours after mushroom ingestion were cured without sequelae.
This article was published in Clin Toxicol (Phila)
and referenced in Emergency Medicine: Open Access