alexa American histoplasmosis in developing countries with a special focus on patients with HIV: diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.
Infectious Diseases

Infectious Diseases

Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research

Author(s): Couppi P, Aznar C, Carme B, Nacher M, Couppi P, Aznar C, Carme B, Nacher M

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Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Histoplasmosis due to Histoplasma capsulatum var capsulatum is a frequent systemic fungal infection in the Americas. Diagnostic and therapeutic options differ between North and South America. Disseminated histoplasmosis is an AIDS-defining infection. Prognostic factors of potentially severe presentations must be evaluated in order to facilitate the initial therapeutic choice. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with HIV with disseminated infections presenting with severe pulmonary and renal impairment have a poor prognosis. Cutaneous presentations are more frequent in HIV patients in South America than in North America. A murine model has shown that South American isolates have a greater virulence that North American isolates. These differences are due in part to diagnostic delays in resource-poor countries. SUMMARY: Direct examination of May-Grünwald-Giemsa-stained smears or tissues in suspected histoplasmosis is a simple means of confirming the diagnosis in resource-poor settings. Studies of prognostic factors should further refine indication criteria to guide first-line treatment choice between amphotericin B and itraconazole. The association of tuberculosis and histoplasmosis is frequent in HIV patients and presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges that may be difficult to resolve in resource-poor settings. It is important that affordable generic drugs for treating histoplasmosis be made widely available in resource-poor countries. This article was published in Curr Opin Infect Dis and referenced in Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research

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