Author(s): Namgaladze D, Snodgrass RG, Angioni C, Grossmann N, Dehne N,
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Abstract Macrophages respond to the Th2 cytokine IL-4 with elevated expression of arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (ALOX15). Although IL-4 signaling elicits anti-inflammatory responses, 15-lipoxygenase may either support or inhibit inflammatory processes in a context-dependent manner. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic sensor/regulator that supports an anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotype. How AMPK activation is linked to IL-4-elicited gene signatures remains unexplored. Using primary human macrophages stimulated with IL-4, we observed elevated ALOX15 mRNA and protein expression, which was attenuated by AMPK activation. AMPK activators, e.g. phenformin and aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-d-ribofuranoside inhibited IL-4-evoked activation of STAT3 while leaving activation of STAT6 and induction of typical IL-4-responsive genes intact. In addition, phenformin prevented IL-4-induced association of STAT6 and Lys-9 acetylation of histone H3 at the ALOX15 promoter. Activating AMPK abolished cellular production of 15-lipoxygenase arachidonic acid metabolites in IL-4-stimulated macrophages, which was mimicked by ALOX15 knockdown. Finally, pretreatment of macrophages with IL-4 for 48 h increased the mRNA expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-12, CXCL9, and CXCL10 induced by subsequent stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. This response was attenuated by inhibition of ALOX15 or activation of AMPK during incubation with IL-4. In conclusion, limiting ALOX15 expression by AMPK may promote an anti-inflammatory phenotype of IL-4-stimulated human macrophages. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
This article was published in J Biol Chem
and referenced in Journal of Cytokine Biology