Author(s): Brockes JP
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Abstract The ability to regenerate complex structures is widespread in metazoan phylogeny, but among vertebrates the urodele amphibians are exceptional. Adult urodeles can regenerate their limbs by local formation of a mesenchymal growth zone or blastema. The generation of blastemal cells depends not only on the local extracellular environment after amputation or wounding but also on the ability to reenter the cell cycle from the differentiated state. The blastema replaces structures appropriate to its proximodistal position. Axial identity is probably encoded as a graded property that controls cellular growth and movement through local cell interactions. The molecular basis is not understood, but proximodistal identity in newt blastemal cells may be respecified by signaling through a retinoic acid receptor isoform. The possibility of inducing a blastema on a mammalian limb cannot be discounted, although the molecular constraints are becoming clearer as we understand more about the mechanisms of urodele regeneration.
This article was published in Science
and referenced in Hair Therapy & Transplantation