alexa AMPK and autophagy in glucose glycogen metabolism.
Chemistry

Chemistry

Medicinal Chemistry

Author(s): Ha J, Guan KL, Kim J

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Abstract Glucose/glycogen metabolism is a primary metabolic pathway acting on a variety of cellular needs, such as proliferation, growth, and survival against stresses. The multiple regulatory mechanisms underlying a specific metabolic fate have been documented and explained the molecular basis of various pathophysiological conditions, including metabolic disorders and cancers. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been appreciated for many years as a central metabolic regulator to inhibit energy-consuming pathways as well as to activate the compensating energy-producing programs. In fact, glucose starvation is a potent physiological AMPK activating condition, in which AMPK triggers various subsequent metabolic events depending on cells or tissues. Of note, the recent studies show bidirectional interplay between AMPK and glycogen. A growing number of studies have proposed additional level of metabolic regulation by a lysosome-dependent catabolic program, autophagy. Autophagy is a critical degradative pathway not only for maintenance of cellular homeostasis to remove potentially dangerous constituents, such as protein aggregates and dysfunctional subcellular organelles, but also for adaptive responses to metabolic stress, such as nutrient starvation. Importantly, many lines of evidence indicate that autophagy is closely connected with nutrient signaling modules, including AMPK, to fine-tune the metabolic pathways in response to many different cellular cues. In this review, we introduce the studies demonstrating the role of AMPK and autophagy in glucose/glycogen metabolism. Also, we describe the recent advances on their contributions to the metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. This article was published in Mol Aspects Med and referenced in Medicinal Chemistry

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