alexa An increase in enteric fever cases due to Salmonella Paratyphi A in & around Chandigarh.


Clinical Microbiology: Open Access

Author(s): Gupta V, Kaur J, Chander J

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Abstract BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Enteric fever is a major public health problem in India. It is classically caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi. Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A which had been reported less frequently from cases of enteric fever has shown an increasing trend since 1996 in India. There is also variation in the antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella Paratyphi A from different parts of the country. An attempt is therefore made to study the rate of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella Paratyphi A from cases of enteric fever coming to a tertiary care hospital at Chandigarh. METHODS: The blood samples of patients suspected of having enteric fever and admitted to Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, from January 2006 to April 2007 (11,240) were processed by conventional methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration to two antibiotics- ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol was determined by agar dilution technique. Simultaneously, retrospective analysis was done from January 2003-December 2005 to study any difference in the incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella Paratyphi A among enteric fever patients. RESULTS: Of 305 total isolates, 231 were S. Typhi and 84 S. Paratyphi A rise. The number of Salmonella Paratyphi A cases rose from 27 in 2006 (34.18\%) to 13 (40.63\%) in four months of 2007. All were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime but MIC to ciprofloxacin was raised (0.125-0.5 microg/ml). Resistance to nalidixic acid was 92.5 per cent. Chloramphenicol sensitivity re-emerged with 90 per cent isolates sensitive to it while sensitivity to ampicillin dropped (72.5\%) as compared to previous years. Only one isolate was multi-drug resistant. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: The present study conferencing Salmonella Paratyphi A as the rapidly emerging pathogen of enteric fever. With increasing resistance to fluoroquinolones and possibility of re-emergence of sensitivity to chloramphenicol, the policy of empirical treatment of enteric fever needs to be rationalized.
This article was published in Indian J Med Res and referenced in Clinical Microbiology: Open Access

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