Author(s): Dalwadi G, Sunderland B
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Abstract The aim of this study was to enhance the loading of dalargin (enkephalin derivatives) a hydrophilic drug and loperamide HCl (non-opiate antidiarrheal agent) a lipophilic drug candidates within PEGylated nanoparticles. A novel nanoencapsulation method based on the concept of s/o/w and ion pairing followed by solvent diffusion was adopted. The copolymers with three different mPEG densities (5\%, 12\% and 17\%) were employed separately in combination with two different grades of dextran sulphate (DS) 5000 and 500,000 MW in the preparations. Nanoparticles prepared from copolymers with increasing mPEG densities, showed an insignificant (p>0.05) increasing trend of drug loading, this was however significantly increased when DS5000 was included in the preparations. The particle size remains unchanged after dalargin loading, with no significant (p>0.05) alteration in the neutral zeta potential compared to that of the preparations without DS5000. Considering that a dalargin ion pair could also have a neutral charge, it was not advisable to conclude its incorporation, as the size remain unchanged, which would otherwise increase if an ion pair was incorporated within the core of nanoparticles. Therefore, it was expected that a dalargin ion pair might be located outside the core as a separate particulate entity or reside in the hydrophilic shell of the nanoparticles. A loperamide HCl ion pair showed significant (p<0.05) increase in size when incorporated; at the same time it provided a neutral zeta potential despite adding negatively charged DS5000 in the preparation, hence it seemed encapsulated. Inclusion of DS500,000 in the preparation further increased the drug loading of dalargin and loperamide HCl. However, a significant (p<0.05) negative zeta potential was noted in both cases which suggested that excess charge was still available on the surface of nanoparticles which could trap further amounts of drug on the surface rather than inside the core of nanoparticles. During in vitro evaluation of drug loaded nanoparticles, dalargin released as quickly as free drug, when loperamide HCl showed almost burst free sustained release profile with respect to the release of their free drug solutions, suggested that ion pairing approach was more pronounced for loperamide HCl formulation.
This article was published in Eur J Pharm Biopharm
and referenced in Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology