Author(s): Iovine NM, Elsbach P, Weiss J, Iovine NM, Elsbach P, Weiss J
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Abstract The host response to Gram-negative bacterial infection is influenced by two homologous lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-interactive proteins, LPS-binding protein (LBP) and the bacteridical/permeability-increasing protein (BPI). Both proteins bind LPS via their N-terminal domains but produce profoundly different effects: BPI and a bioactive N-terminal fragment BPI-21 exert a selective and potent antibacterial effect upon Gram-negative bacteria and suppress LPS bioactivity whereas LBP is not toxic toward Gram-negative bacteria and potentiates LPS bioactivity. The latter effect of LBP requires the C-terminal domain for delivery of LPS to CD14, so we postulated that the C-terminal region of BPI may serve a similar delivery function but to distinct targets. LBP, holoBPI, BPI-21, and LBP/BPI chimeras were compared for their ability to promote uptake by human phagocytes of an encapsulated, phagocytosis-resistant strain of Escherichia coli. We show that only bacteria preincubated with holoBPI are ingested by neutrophils and monocytes. These findings suggest that, when extracellular holoBPI is bound via its N-terminal domain to Gram-negative bacteria, the C-terminal domain promotes bacterial attachment to neutrophils and monocytes, leading to phagocytosis. Therefore, analogous to the role of the C-terminal domain of LBP in delivery of LPS to CD14, the C-terminal domain of BPI may fulfill a similar function in BPI-specific disposal pathways for Gram-negative bacteria.
This article was published in Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
and referenced in Journal of Dermatitis