Author(s): Guenther F, von zur Muhlen C, Ferrante EA, Grundmann S, Bode C,
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Abstract OBJECTIVES: To evaluate targeting of a microbubble contrast agent to platelets under high shear flow using the natural selectin ligand sialyl Lewis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Biotinylated polyacrylamide Sialyl Lewis or biotinylated carbohydrate-free polymer (used as a control) were attached to biotinylated microbubbles via a streptavidin linker. Activated human platelets were isolated and attached to fibrinogen-coated culture dishes. Fibrinogen-coated dishes without platelets or platelet dishes blocked by an anti-P-selectin antibody served as negative control substrates. Dishes coated by recombinant P-selectin served as a positive control substrate. Microbubble adhesion was assessed by microscopy in an inverted parallel plate flow chamber, with wall shear stress values of 40, 30, 20, 10, and 5 dynes/cm2. The ratio of binding and passing microbubbles was defined as capture efficiency. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the groups regarding the number of microbubbles in the fluid flow at each shear rate. Sialyl Lewis-targeted microbubbles were binding and slowly rolling on the surface of activated platelets and P-selectin-coated dishes at all the flow conditions including 40 dynes/cm2. Capture efficiency of targeted microbubbles to activated platelets and recombinant P-selectin decreased with increasing shear flow: at 5 dynes/cm2, capture efficiency was 16.11\% on activated platelets versus 21.83\% on P-selectin, and, at 40 dynes/cm2, adhesion efficiency was still 3.4\% in both groups. There was neither significant adhesion of Sialyl Lewis-targeted microbubbles to control substrates, nor adhesion of control microbubbles to activated platelets or to recombinant P-selectin. CONCLUSIONS: Microbubble targeting using sialyl Lewis, a fast-binding ligand to P-selectin, is a promising strategy for the design of ultrasound contrast binding to activated platelets under high shear stress conditions.
This article was published in Invest Radiol
and referenced in Anatomy & Physiology: Current Research