Author(s): Klencke BJ, Palefsky JM
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Abstract Although not yet included in the Centers for Disease Control definition of AIDS, anal cancer clearly occurs more commonly in HIV-infected patients. An effective screening program for those groups who are at highest risk might be expected to impact rates of anal cancer just as significantly as did cervical Pap screening programs for the incidence of cervical cancer. Despite a relatively low rate of progression from AIN to invasive cancer, the scope of the problem is enormous based on the prevalence of anal HPV infection and the size of the HIV-infected, at-risk population. Thus, the potential benefits of screening, detection, and the development of more effective therapy also are enormous. Currently, therapeutic HPV vaccines for AIN represent an exciting avenue of research in HPV-related anogenital disease. Invasive anal cancer and HSIL (which is believed to be the precursor lesion) are expected to become increasingly important health problems for both HIV-infected men and women as their life expectancy lengthens. Although HAART may have improved the ability of many to tolerate CMT, it appears that toxicity of this therapy continues to be a problem for a proportion of HIV-infected subjects. The acute side effects present specific challenges to the clinician and patient, have an immediate impact on the patient's plan of care and dose intensity of the treatment, and ultimately may impact the outcome of the planned treatment. Late toxicity may influence the long-term quality of life. Small patient numbers, variable radiation therapy doses, limited information about viral load, and a potential confounding effect of higher CD4+ levels make it difficult to draw any conclusions about the effect of HAART on anal cancer outcome. Large, prospective studies will be required before solid conclusions about the impact of various factors on anal cancer prognosis and outcome can be drawn.
This article was published in Hematol Oncol Clin North Am
and referenced in Journal of Cancer Science & Therapy