Author(s): CrawfordMiksza L, Schnurr DP
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Abstract The first full-length hexon protein DNA and deduced amino acid sequences of a subgenus D adenovirus (AV) were determined from candidate AV48 (85-0844). Comprehensive comparison of this sequence with hexon protein sequences from human subgenera A, B, C, D, F, bovine AV3, and mouse AV1 revealed seven discrete hypervariable regions (HVRs) among the 250 variable residues in loops 1 and 2. These regions differed in length between serotypes, from 2 to 38 residues, and contained > 00\% of hexon serotype-specific residues among human serotypes. Alignment with the published crystal structure of AV2 established the location and structure of the type-specific regions. Five HVRs were shown to be part of linear loops on the exposed surfaces of the protein, analogous to the serotype-specific loops or "puffs" in picornavirus capsid proteins. The HVRs were supported by a common framework of conserved residues, of which 68 to 75\% were hydrophobic. Unique sequences were limited to the seven HVRs, so that one or more of these regions contain the type-specific neutralization epitopes. A neutralizing AV48 hexon-specific antiserum recognized linear peptides that corresponded to six HVRs by enzyme immunoassay. Affinity-purification removal of all peptide-reactive antibodies did not significantly decrease the neutralization titer. Eluted peptide-reactive antibodies did not neutralize. Human antisera that neutralized AV48 did not recognize linear peptides. Purified trimeric native hexon inhibited neutralization, but monomeric heat-denatured hexon did not. We conclude that the AV48 neutralization epitope(s) is complex and conformational.
This article was published in J Virol
and referenced in Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics