Author(s): SchultzeMosgau S, Nkenke E, Schlegel AK, Hirschfelder U, Wiltfang J
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Abstract PURPOSE: We sought to analyze the success rate of secondary alveolar cleft bone grafts before and after canine eruption in connection with orthodontic gap closure or gap opening. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-eight secondary alveolar cleft bone grafts with iliac crest spongiosa were carried out in 57 patients (mean age, 9 years; age range, 8 to 11 years) with 11 bilateral and 46 unilateral clefts of the lip, alveolus, or palate. Gap closures were carried out after 53 bone grafts (78\%), and gap openings with subsequent dental implants were carried out with 15 bone grafts (22\%). The parameters acquired radiologically (orthopantomograms) at the time of the surgery and the follow-up examination (mean age, 3 years; age range, 7 months to 9 years) were 1) bone resorption in relation to the interdental height of the alveolar process in the vicinity of the cleft and 2) root growth of the teeth in the vicinity of the cleft. The statistically significant differences (P <.05) were monitored with a software program. Resorption grades I and II (>50\% of the interalveolar bone height) were considered to be a success. RESULTS: Resorption was grade I in 69\%, grade II in 19\%, grade III in 10\%, and grade IV in 1\% of cases. Thus, the overall success rate was 88\%. At the time of the osteoplasty, the root growth of the tooth in the immediate vicinity of the cleft was fully completed in 27 teeth (39\%), three-quarters completed in 23 teeth (26.5\%), and semicompleted in 18 teeth (33.8\%). Twelve teeth (18\%) in the vicinity of the cleft (lateral incisors/canine) remained unerupted and displaced after the surgery. It was necessary to expose unerupted teeth surgically to reposition them orthodontically. The resorption losses were significantly lower with gap closures than with gap openings (P <.001). However, bone grafts performed before canine eruption were largely carried out with the objective of orthodontic gap closure, in contrast to the bone grafts that were carried out after canine eruption (P <.02). CONCLUSION: Gap closures provide more favorable results than do gap openings in regard to resorption. Controlled dental eruptions or orthodontic gap closures reduce the graft resorption. The exact timing of surgery proved to be only a secondary consideration.
This article was published in J Oral Maxillofac Surg
and referenced in Journal of Tissue Science & Engineering