Author(s): Pang Y, Cai Z, Rhodes PG
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Abstract We used cDNA arrays to investigate differentially expressed genes in astrocytes challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Astrocyte cultures were prepared from 1-day-old rat brains. Purified astrocytes were treated with LPS (1 microg/ml) for 2, 8 and 48 h. Differentially expressed genes in these astrocytes were examined with Atlas rat cDNA arrays. At all the three time points studied, three genes were found consistently up-regulated: I-kappaB alpha chain, NF-kappaB, and interferon induced protein. In addition to these three, six other genes were also up-regulated at 2 and 8 h. They were genes encoding vascular cell adhesion protein 1 (VCAM-1), interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1), mitochondrial hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMG-CoA synthase), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, macrophage inflammatory protein 1 (MIP-1) and neurotensin receptor 2. At these two time points, three genes were down-regulated: copper-zinc-containing superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3). Expression of several differentially expressed genes in cDNA array (I-kappaB, VCAM-1 and MIP-3) were further confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction study. The prominently modulated genes could be classified into three categories: nuclear transcription factors, pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and metabolic enzymes. Application of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, an inhibitor of nuclear factor-kB (NF-kappaB), prior to LPS stimulation not only prevented up-regulation of NF-kappaB gene expression, but also completely blocked up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes (TNF-alpha and interleukin-1beta) and two chemokine genes: CXC chemokine LIX and CC chemokine MIP-3 alpha. These results indicate that both up-regulation of inflammatory cytokine expression and down-regulation of growth factor expression are probably involved in the response of astrocytes upon exposure to LPS.
This article was published in Brain Res
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology