Author(s): Wang J
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Abstract Macrolides are a group of antibiotics that have been widely used in human medical and veterinary practices. Analysis of macrolides and related compounds in food, biological, and environmental matrices continue to be the focus of scientists for the reasons of food safety, pharmacokinetic studies, and environmental concerns. This article presents an overview on the primary biological properties of macrolides and their associated analytical issues, including extraction, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), method validation, and measurement uncertainty. The main techniques that have been used to extract macrolides from various matrices are solid-phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction. Conventional liquid chromatography (LC) with C18 columns plays a dominant role for the determination of macrolides, whereas ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) along with sub-2 microm particle C18 columns reduces run time and improves sensitivity. Mass spectrometry (MS), serving as a universal detection technique, has replaced ultraviolet (UV), fluorometric, and electrochemical detection for multi-macrolide analysis. The triple-quadrupole (QqQ), quadrupole ion trap (QIT), triple-quadrupole linear ion trap, time-of-flight (TOF), and quadrupole time-of-flight (QqTOF) mass spectrometers are current choices for the determination of macrolides, including quantification, confirmation, identification of their degradation products or metabolites, and structural elucidation. LC or UPLC coupled to a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in the multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode (LC/MS/MS) is the first choice for quantification. UPLC-TOF or UPLC-QqTOF has been recognized as an emerging technique for accurate mass measurement and unequivocal identification of macrolides and their related compounds.
This article was published in Mass Spectrom Rev
and referenced in Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques