Author(s): RoblesEscajeda E, Martnez A, VarelaRamirez A, SnchezDelgado RA, Aguilera RJ
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Abstract Ruthenium-based compounds have intriguing anti-cancer properties, and some of these novel compounds are currently in clinical trials. To continue the development of new metal-based drug combinations, we coupled ruthenium (Ru) with the azole compounds ketoconazole (KTZ) and clotrimazole (CTZ), which are well-known antifungal agents that also display anticancer properties. We report the activity of a series of 12 Ru-KTZ and Ru-CTZ compounds against three prostate tumor cell lines with different androgen sensitivity, as well as cervical cancer and lymphoblastic lymphoma cell lines. In addition, human cell lines were used to evaluate the toxicity against non-transformed cells and to establish selectivity indexes. Our results indicate that the combination of ruthenium and KTZ/CTZ in a single molecule results in complexes that are more cytotoxic than the individual components alone, displaying in some cases low micromolar CC50 values and high selectivity indexes. Additionally, all compounds are more cytotoxic against prostate cell lines with lower cytotoxicity against non-transformed epidermal cell lines. Some of the compounds were found to primarily induce cell death via apoptosis yet weakly interact with DNA. Our studies also demonstrate that the cytotoxicity induced by our Ru-based compounds is not directly related to their ability to interact with DNA.
This article was published in Cell Biol Toxicol
and referenced in Medicinal Chemistry