alexa Analysis of the mushroom nephrotoxin orellanine and its glucosides.
Molecular Biology

Molecular Biology

Journal of Cytology & Histology

Author(s): Herrmann A, Hedman H, Rosn J, Jansson D, Haraldsson B,

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Abstract Orellanine is a nephrotoxin found in various Cortinaceae mushroom species. Unintentional consumption after these species were confused with edible mushrooms such as Cantharellus tubaeformis has caused several casualties. In this work, a quantitative HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for total orellanine in Cortinarius rubellus, spiked blood plasma, and a mushroom stew prepared from C. tubaeformis with the addition of a single specimen of C. rubellus is presented. The existence of mono- and diglucosylated orellanine in C. rubellus was also proven, although quantitative analysis could not be obtained for the glucosides due to rapid hydrolyzation to orellanine in the extract. Extraction with 3 M HCl or water mainly yielded orellanine, while MeOH or acidified MeOH mainly extracted mono- and diglucosylated orellanine. The highest recovery of total orellanine was obtained with 3 M HCl, which was subsequently used for quantitative analysis. A C₁₈ HPLC column and low pH in the eluents retained all these toxins. Orellanine could be detected at a 4.9 ng/mL level in all extracts, which is well below the threshold for acute toxic effects. Additionally, the fragmentation pattern of orellanine upon electrospray MS/MS was probed. The method described is useful for two important applications. First, it allows quantitative analysis of processed food products that may be contaminated by orellanine from Cortinaceae mushrooms. Second, orellanine is currently being evaluated as a potential cure of metastatic renal cancer, and this work provides a method for monitoring orellanine at low concentrations within the therapeutic interval in blood serum. This article was published in J Nat Prod and referenced in Journal of Cytology & Histology

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