alexa Analytical methods for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in environmental monitoring and surveillance: a critical appraisal.
Chemistry

Chemistry

Modern Chemistry & Applications

Author(s): Muir D, Sverko E

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Analytical methods for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are widely available and are the result of a vast amount of environmental analytical method development and research on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) over the past 30-40 years. This review summarizes procedures and examines new approaches for extraction, isolation, identification and quantification of individual congeners/isomers of the PCBs and OCPs. Critical to the successful application of this methodology is the collection, preparation, and storage of samples, as well as specific quality control and reporting criteria, and therefore these are also discussed. With the signing of the Stockholm convention on POPs and the development of global monitoring programs, there is an increased need for laboratories in developing countries to determine PCBs and OCPs. Thus, while this review attempts to summarize the current best practices for analysis of PCBs and OCPs, a major focus is the need for low-cost methods that can be easily implemented in developing countries. A "performance based" process is described whereby individual laboratories can adapt methods best suited to their situations. Access to modern capillary gas chromatography (GC) equipment with either electron capture or low-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) detection to separate and quantify OCP/PCBs is essential. However, screening of samples, especially in areas of known use of OCPs or PCBs, could be accomplished with bioanalytical methods such as specific commercially available enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays and thus this topic is also reviewed. New analytical techniques such two-dimensional GC (2D-GC) and "fast GC" using GC-ECD may be well-suited for broader use in routine PCB/OCP analysis in the near future given their relatively low costs and ability to provide high-resolution separations of PCB/OCPs. Procedures with low environmental impact (SPME, microscale, low solvent use, etc.) are increasingly being used and may be particularly suited to developing countries.
This article was published in Anal Bioanal Chem and referenced in Modern Chemistry & Applications

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

  • Eugene Stephane Mananga
    On Fer and Floquet-Magnus expansions: Application in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and physics
    PDF Version
  • Ines Bouaziz
    Water treatment containing organic compounds by coupling adsorption and electrochemical degradation at BDD anode: Sawdust adsorption performance for the treatment of dilute phenol solutions
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Beste Cubukcuoglu
    Beste-Cubukcuoglu-Antalya-International-University-Turkey-The-environmental-impact-evaluation-and-testing-of-sustainable-inorganic-binders-A-green-alternative-to-ordinary-Portland-cement
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Elizabeth Chang
    Advances in Internet of Things and Cyber Physical Systems and its Adoption to Smart Ship
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Soliman Khatib
    Analysis of volatile organic compounds in rats with dopaminergic lesion: possible application for early detection of Parkinson’s disease
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Paul A Levy
    Examining the Social and Physical Environment of Adolescent Substance Users in Shanghai and East Baltimore
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Yosef Yarden
    Classically, the 3’untranslated region (3’UTR) is that region in eukaryotic protein-coding genes from the translation termination codon to the polyA signal. It is transcribed as an integral part of the mRNA encoded by the gene. However, there exists another kind of RNA, which consists of the 3’UTR alone, without all other elements in mRNA such as 5’UTR and coding region. The importance of independent 3’UTR RNA (referred as I3’UTR) was prompted by results of artificially introducing such RNA species into malignant mammalian cells. Since 1991, we found that the middle part of the 3’UTR of the human nuclear factor for interleukin-6 (NF-IL6) or C/EBP gene exerted tumor suppression effect in vivo. Our subsequent studies showed that transfection of C/EBP 3’UTR led to down-regulation of several genes favorable for malignancy and to up-regulation of some genes favorable for phenotypic reversion. Also, it was shown that the sequences near the termini of the C/EBP 3’UTR were important for its tumor suppression activity. Then, the C/EBP 3’UTR was found to directly inhibit the phosphorylation activity of protein kinase CPKC in SMMC-7721, a hepatocarcinoma cell line. Recently, an AU-rich region in the C/EBP 3’UTR was found also to be responsible for its tumor suppression. Recently we have also found evidence that the independent C/EBP 3’UTR RNA is actually exists in human tissues, such as fetal liver and heart, pregnant uterus, senescent fibroblasts etc. Through 1990’s to 2000’s, world scientists found several 3’UTR RNAs that functioned as artificial independent RNAs in cancer cells and resulted in tumor suppression. Interestingly, majority of genes for these RNAs have promoter-like structures in their 3’UTR regions, although the existence of their transcribed products as independent 3’UTR RNAs is still to be confirmed. Our studies indicate that the independent 3’UTR RNA is a novel non-coding RNA species whose function should be the regulation not of the expression of their original mRNA, but of some essential life activities of the cell as a whole.
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Habiba Shehu
    Habiba-Shehu-Study-of-the-selectivity-of-methane-over-carbon-dioxide-and-inert-gases-using-composite-inorganic-membranes
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Alexander M. Wahrhaftig
    Alexander-M-Wahrhaftig-Federal-University-of-Bahia-Brazil-Analytical-solution-for-welded-joints-of-perpendicular-plates-subjected-to-torsional-moment
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Ying Qing Yu
    N-linked Glycan Characterization and Profiling: Combining the Power of a Novel Labeling Reagent and a Streamlined Analytical Workflow
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Yamina Andre
    Nanostructured self-assembled P3HT thin films and their application to enhance organic solar cell efficiency
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Daniel Smith
    The editor as auteur: The modern role of editors and preditors
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Nadia Badr
    Application of aquatic plant phytoremediation as green technology treatment of lead in polluted water
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Olga V Shuvaeva
    The use of thermal release technique with atomic absorption detection for the study of mercury transformation in contaminated environment
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Abel E Navarro
    Improving the adsorptive properties of biomaterials for the removal of heavy metals
    PPT Version | PDF Version

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords