Author(s): Keun HC, Ebbels TM, Antti H, Bollard ME, Beckonert O,
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Abstract Metabonomic analysis of biofluids and tissues utilizing high-resolution NMR spectroscopy and chemometric techniques has proven valuable in characterizing the biochemical response to toxicity for many xenobiotics. To assess the analytical reproducibility of metabonomic protocols, sample preparation and NMR data acquisition were performed at two sites (one using a 500 MHz and the other using a 600 MHz system) using two identical (split) sets of urine samples from an 8-day acute study of hydrazine toxicity in the rat. Despite the difference in spectrometer operating frequency, both datasets were extremely similar when analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA) and gave near-identical descriptions of the metabolic responses to hydrazine treatment. The main consistent difference between the datasets was related to the efficiency of water resonance suppression in the spectra. In a 4-PC model of both datasets combined, describing all systematic dose- and time-related variation (88\% of the total variation), differences between the two datasets accounted for only 3\% of the total modeled variance compared to ca. 15\% for normal physiological (pre-dose) variation. Furthermore, <3\% of spectra displayed distinct inter-site differences, and these were clearly identified as outliers in their respective dose-group PCA models. No samples produced clear outliers in both datasets, suggesting that the outliers observed did not reflect an unusual sample composition, but rather sporadic differences in sample preparation leading to, for example, very dilute samples. Estimations of the relative concentrations of citrate, hippurate, and taurine were in >95\% correlation (r(2)) between sites, with an analytical error comparable to normal physiological variation in concentration (4-8\%). The excellent analytical reproducibility and robustness of metabonomic techniques demonstrated here are highly competitive compared to the best proteomic analyses and are in significant contrast to genomic microarray platforms, both of which are complementary techniques for predictive and mechanistic toxicology. These results have implications for the quantitative interpretation of metabonomic data, and the establishment of quality control criteria for both regulatory agencies and for integrating data obtained at different sites.
This article was published in Chem Res Toxicol
and referenced in Metabolomics:Open Access