Author(s): Zinderman CE, Landow L, Wise RP
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Clinical dextrans, such as Dextran 40 and Dextran 70, are associated with anaphylactoid reactions caused by dextran-reactive immunoglobulin G antibodies. When infused immediately before clinical dextrans, dextran 1 significantly reduces the incidence of severe anaphylactoid reactions. The objective of the study was to describe the frequency and characteristics of reports submitted to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for anaphylaxis or anaphylactoid events after clinical dextran administration. METHODS: We searched the FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System for reports associated with a clinical dextran and describing anaphylaxis/anaphylactoid reactions. Our case definition for a probable anaphylaxis/anaphylactoid event required signs or symptoms from at least two body systems, with at least one sign or symptom being hypotension, vasodilation, or respiratory difficulty, and onset within 60 minutes. Other reports were considered possible cases if the reporter specifically described the reaction as anaphylaxis or an anaphylactoid reaction. Premier RxMarket Advisor provided estimates of total US hospitalizations with clinical dextran or dextran 1 administration from 2000 to 2004, based on discharge billing data from a sample of US hospitals. The IMS National Sales Perspective provided estimates of total doses of dextrans sold in the United States from 1999 to 2004, based on volumes of dextrans sold in a sample of retail and nonretail outlets. RESULTS: The FDA received 366 clinical dextran adverse event reports from 1969 to 2004, of which 90 (24.6\%) were anaphylaxis/anaphylactoid events. The ratio of hospitalizations where clinical dextran was administered to hospitalizations where dextran 1 was administered was 28.4:1. The expected ratio would be 1:1 if all clinical dextran patients had received dextran 1 pretreatment. The ratio of clinical dextran doses sold to dextran 1 doses sold in the United States was 38.6:1. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of adverse event reports for clinical dextrans described anaphylaxis or anaphylactoid reactions. Hospital discharge and product sales data suggest that dextran 1 has not been used consistently before clinical dextran administration in recent years. To reduce the risk of anaphylactoid reactions, physicians should consider routine administration of dextran 1 before the infusion of a clinical dextran.
This article was published in J Vasc Surg
and referenced in Journal of Clinical Toxicology