Author(s): Kahl P, Gullotti L, Heukamp LC, Wolf S, Friedrichs N,
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Abstract Prostate cancer biology varies from locally confined tumors with low risk for relapse to tumors with high risk for progression even after radical prostatectomy. Currently, there are no reliable biomarkers to predict tumor relapse and poor clinical outcome. In this study, we correlated expression patterns of the androgen receptor (AR) coactivators lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (LSD1) and four and a half LIM-domain protein 2 (FHL2), AR, Gleason score, Gleason grade, and p53 expression in clinically organ confined prostate cancers with relapse after radical prostatectomy. Our data reveal that high levels of LSD1, nuclear expression of the FHL2 coactivator, high Gleason score and grade, and very strong staining of nuclear p53 correlate significantly with relapse during follow-up. No correlation exists with relapse and the expression of AR and cytoplasmic expression of FHL2. To confirm these data, we did quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analyses in a subset of tumor specimens. Consistently, both LSD1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly up-regulated in high-risk tumors. We previously identified LSD1 and FHL2 as nuclear cofactors interacting specifically with the AR in prostate cells and showed that both stimulate androgen-dependent gene transcription. Our present study suggests that LSD1 and nuclear FHL2 may serve as novel biomarkers predictive for prostate cancer with aggressive biology and point to a role of LSD1 and FHL2 in constitutive activation of AR-mediated growth signals.
This article was published in Cancer Res
and referenced in Journal of Steroids & Hormonal Science