Author(s): Ricaurte L, Vargas J, Lozano E, Daz L Organ Transplan
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Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has diverse causes and the outcomes can change with renal transplantation, which has the potential to increase quality of life and improve survival. Because transplant recipients usually have comorbid conditions, presurgical assessment, optimization of health status, monitoring, and intraoperative anesthetic management are essential. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate available medical literature concerning presurgical anesthetic assessment and intraoperative and postoperative anesthetic management of patients undergoing renal transplantation. REVIEW CRITERIA: A bibliographic search was made in MEDLINE, OVID, and LILIACS without language or design limits. Available evidence from February 1991 to February 2011 was taken. Articles about anesthesia in renal transplantation were included. Information quality was assessed according to design type with "Critical Appraisal Skills Program" (CASP-UK) tools. Epidemiological data in Colombia were obtained from the Social Protection Ministry and FOSYGA (Solidarity and Guarantee Fund) web pages. RESULTS: Regarding prognosis, CKD mortality increases with dialysis and with its duration, whereas transplantation reduces it and enhances survival. Recipient mortality, functionality, and graft lifespan are influenced by donor type (immediate diuresis with living donors, P < .05), hydration (60-90 mL/kg), early diuresis (13\% mortality rate at 1 year if delayed and reduction of graft lifetime 20\%-40\%). When comparing diuresis, clearance creatinine, kidney perfusion, and function, there were no significant differences between general and regional anesthesia. Nevertheless, postoperative analgesia was better with epidural anesthesia. CONCLUSION: Examination of the patient and optimization of the overall health status contributes to graft optimal function and patient survival. Regional anesthesia has better control over postoperative pain, but it has no effect on the prognosis, The intraoperative maintenance of appropriate hydration enhances flux and renal perfusion, which allows early functionality of the graft. This, together with a living donor are considered good prognosis factors, moreover they reduce recipient mortality and improve graft lifetime. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Transplant Proc
and referenced in Journal of Anesthesia & Clinical Research