Author(s): Gerges FJ, Kanazi GE, JabbourKhoury SI
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Abstract Laparoscopy is the process of inspecting the abdominal cavity through an endoscope. Carbon dioxide is most universally used to insufflate the abdominal cavity to facilitate the view. However, several pathophysiological changes occur after carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum and extremes of patient positioning. A thorough understanding of these pathophysiological changes is fundamental for optimal anesthetic care. Because expertise and equipment have improved, laparoscopy has become one of the most common surgical procedures performed on an outpatient basis and to sicker patients, rendering anesthesia for laparoscopy technically difficult and challenging. Careful choice of the anesthetic technique must be tailored to the type of surgery. General anesthesia using balanced anesthesia technique including several intravenous and inhalational agents with the use of muscle relaxants showed a rapid recovery and cardiovascular stability. Peripheral nerve blocks and neuraxial anesthesia were both considered as safe alternative to general anesthesia for outpatient pelvic laparoscopy without associated respiratory depression. Local anesthesia infiltration has shown to be effective and safe in microlaparoscopy for limited and precise gynecologic procedures. However, intravenous sedation is sometimes required. This article considers the pathophysiological changes during laparoscopy using carbon dioxide for intra-abdominal insufflation, outlines various anesthetic techniques of general and regional anesthesia, and discusses recovery and postoperative complications after laparoscopic abdominal surgery.
This article was published in J Clin Anesth
and referenced in Medical & Surgical Urology