Author(s): Brezinski DA, Nesto RW, Serhan CN
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) is a widely used and important method of reperfusing coronary arteries. However, it is also associated with serious complications such as acute reocclusion and accelerated restenosis. The factors as well as the mechanisms involved in PTCA-associated complications remain to be fully elucidated. Because peptidoleukotrienes and lipoxins are potent vasoactive compounds, the formation of which is not inhibited by aspirin (ASA) treatment in vitro, it is possible that these eicosanoids are involved in PTCA-associated untoward events. To test this, we determined the intracoronary levels of peptidoleukotrienes and lipoxin A4 (LXA4) as well as thromboxane (TX) and 5S,12S-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5S,12S-DiHETE; a product of double dioxygenation) after plaque rupture and evaluated the impact of ASA therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: PTCA was performed on 12 patients with coronary artery disease, six undergoing ASA therapy and six without ASA therapy, for at least 2 weeks before PTCA. By means of a technique that permitted sampling of intracoronary blood at the plaque site in situ, samples were taken immediately before and 10 seconds after initiation of plaque rupture. Lipoxygenase (LO)-derived products, including LXA4 and 5S,12S-DiHETE, and a marker of cyclooxygenase activity, i.e., TXB2, were quantitated after extraction and chromatography using deuterium-labeled internal standards and electron capture negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Peptidoleukotrienes (LTC4 and LTD4) were quantitated after reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with radioimmunoassay. Intracoronary blood taken before PTCA showed no detectable levels of these eicosanoids (the minimum limits of detection were within the picomole range). In contrast, each of these LO products was detected after PTCA. Patients undergoing ASA treatment showed elevated levels of each LO product examined compared with those not receiving ASA. Eicosanoid levels were (mean +/- SEM): LTC4, 7.10 +/- 1.22 ng/ml (ASA) versus 0.48 +/- 0.10 ng/ml; LTD4, 4.92 +/- 0.56 ng/ml (ASA) versus 1.17 +/- 0.48 ng/ml; LXA4, 24.98 +/- 4.11 ng/ml (ASA) versus 15.83 +/- 2.43 ng/ml; 5S,12S-DiHETE, 19.47 +/- 3.98 ng/ml (ASA) versus 11.98 +/- 1.83 ng/ml; TXB2, complete blockage (ASA) versus 31.04 +/- 7.38 ng/ml (p less than 0.05 for LTC4 and LTD4). To distinguish between dilatation of whole blood versus dilatation of whole blood and atheroma for contribution of eicosanoids, we also monitored their formation in Gore-tex grafts. Upon balloon inflation, TXB2 was generated, but LO products were not detected. In contrast, injection of platelet- and leukocyte-directed agonists within the graft led to both peptidoleukotriene and lipoxin formation. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that PTCA triggers the intraluminal release of peptidoleukotrienes and LXA4 and that ASA therapy enhances their appearance in intracoronary blood. In addition, they provide direct evidence for LO products (LTC4, LTD4, and LXA4) in a local milieu in vivo. Moreover, the presence of the double dioxygenation product 5S,12S-DiHETE (a potential marker of 5- and 12-LO interactions) suggests that transcellular metabolic events can contribute to eicosanoid formation in vivo.
This article was published in Circulation
and referenced in Journal of Gerontology & Geriatric Research