Author(s): Sachse A, Wolf G
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Abstract Angiotensin II (AngII) is an important mediator in renal injury. Accumulating evidence suggests that AngII stimulates intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as the superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide. AngII activates several subunits of the membrane-bound multicomponent NAD(P)H oxidase and also increases ROS formation in the mitochondria. Some of these effects may be induced by aldosterone and not directly by AngII. The superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide influence other downstream signaling pathways, such as transcription factors, tyrosine kinases/phosphatases, ion channels, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Through these signaling pathways, ROS have distinct functional effects on renal cells. They are transducers of cell growth, apoptosis, and cell migration and affect expression of inflammatory and extracellular matrix genes. For example, AngII-mediated expression of p27(Kip1), a cell-cycle regulatory protein, and induction of tubular hypertrophy depend on the generation of ROS. The effects of ROS generated within different renal cells ultimately depend on the locally generated concentrations and the balance of pro- and antioxidant pathways. Although the concept that AngII mediates oxidative stress in the kidney has been validated in experimental models, the exact role is still incompletely understood in human renal diseases.
This article was published in J Am Soc Nephrol
and referenced in Journal of Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics