Author(s): Allan I, Newman H, Wilson M
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Abstract Particulate Bioglass is a bioactive material used in the repair of periodontal defects. This material undergoes a series of surface reactions in an aqueous environment which lead to osseointegration. The aim of this study was to determine whether these reactions exerted an antibacterial effect on a range of oral bacteria. Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces viscosus were suspended in nutrient broth (NB), artificial saliva (AS) or Dulbecco's modified eagle medium plus 10\% foetal calf serum (DMEM + 10\%FCS), with or without particulate Bioglass. All bacteria showed reduced viability following exposure to Bioglass in all the media after 1 h. This antibacterial effect increased after 3 h. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans were suspended in either BM broth or 40\% horse serum (HS) in RPMI. A considerable reduction in viability was observed with all bacteria tested, in both media, compared to inert glass controls. In further experiments it was found that the viability of S. sanguis was significantly reduced following exposure to NB pre-incubated with Bioglass. Additionally, it was found that neutralisation of this highly alkaline solution eliminated the antibacterial effect. Moreover, a solution of NB and NaOH (of equivalent pH) exerted an antibacterial effect of similar magnitude to that of the solution pre-incubated with Bioglass. Thus, particulate Bioglass exerts an antibacterial effect on certain oral bacteria, possibly by virtue of the alkaline nature of its surface reactions. This may reduce bacterial colonisation of its surface in vivo.
This article was published in Biomaterials
and referenced in Dentistry