Author(s): Eyler RF, Mueller BA Medscape
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Abstract A common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) is sepsis, which makes appropriate dosing of antibiotics in these patients essential. Drug dosing in critically ill patients with AKI, however, can be complicated. Critical illness and AKI can both substantially alter pharmacokinetic parameters as compared with healthy individuals or patients with end-stage renal disease. Furthermore, drug pharmacokinetic parameters are highly variable within the critically ill population. The volume of distribution of hydrophilic agents can increase as a result of fluid overload and decreased binding of the drug to serum proteins, and antibiotic loading doses must be adjusted upwards to account for these changes. Although renal elimination of drugs is decreased in patients with AKI, residual renal function in conjunction with renal replacement therapies (RRTs) result in enhanced drug clearance, and maintenance doses must reflect this situation. Antibiotic dosing decisions should be individualized to take into account patient-related, RRT-related, and drug-related factors. Efforts must also be made to optimize the attainment of antibiotic pharmacodynamic goals in this population.
This article was published in Nat Rev Nephrol
and referenced in Journal of Clinical Toxicology