Author(s): Sharma S, Sharma S
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Abstract Bacterial infections of the eye are common and ophthalmologists are spoilt for choice with a variety of antibiotics available in the market. Antibiotics can be administered in the eye by a number of routes; topical, subconjunctival, subtenon and intraocular. Apart from a gamut of eye drops available, ophthalmologists also have the option of preparing fortified eye drops from parenteral formulations, thereby, achieving high concentrations; often much above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), of antibiotics in ocular tissues during therapy. Antibiotic resistance among ocular pathogens is increasing in parallel with the increase seen over the years in bacteria associated with systemic infections. Although it is believed that the rise in resistant ocular bacterial isolates is linked to the rise in resistant systemic pathogens, recent evidence has correlated the emergence of resistant bacteria in the eye to prior topical antibiotic therapy. One would like to believe that either of these contributes to the emergence of resistance to antibiotics among ocular pathogens. Until recently, ocular pathogens resistant to fluoroquinolones have been minimal but the pattern is currently alarming. The new 8-fluoroquinolone on the scene-besifloxacin, is developed exclusively for ophthalmic use and it is hoped that it will escape the selective pressure for resistance because of lack of systemic use. In addition to development of new antibacterial agents, the strategies to halt or control further development of resistant ocular pathogens should always include judicious use of antibiotics in the treatment of human, animal or plant diseases.
This article was published in Indian J Med Microbiol
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology