Author(s): De Sanctis V, Marignani M, Angeletti S, Assisi D, Armosini V, Valeriani M, Enrici RM, Ruco L
Primary rectal MALT lymphoma is a very rare entity among extranodal MALT lymphomas and its therapeutic management has not been standardized. Different approaches including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy have been proposed in the last decades. There have been reports on complete responses after anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy, also in patients without serological or histological evidence of Helicobacter pylori infection. In our patient we obtained a complete response with anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy and a disease-free survival of 34 months. Endoscopic ultrasound was useful for diagnosis and follow-up. Although the mechanisms that determined this response remain a matter of debate, anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy can be considered as first-line therapy in stage IE, nonbulky primary rectal MALT lymphoma. Endoscopic ultrasound could play a relevant role in the management of this rare condition.