Author(s): Delgado M, Gomariz RP, Martinez C, Abad C, Leceta J
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Abstract Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a neuropeptide that can modulate several immune aspects. Previous reports showed that VIP attenuates the deleterious consequences of septic shock by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory agents and stimulating the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines in activated macrophages. In this study, by using selective VIP agonists, we investigated the differential involvement of the VIP receptors in the anti-inflammatory role of VIP. Both the type 1 VIP receptor (VPAC1) agonist, [K(15), R(16), L(27)] VIP 1-7-GRF 8-27, and the type 2 VIP receptor (VPAC2) agonist, Ro25-1553, protected mice from lethal endotoxemia by inhibiting the macrophage-derived pro-inflammatory mediators IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-12 and NO, and by stimulating the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. In addition, both VIP and VPAC1 agonist, but not the VPAC2 agonist, reduced in vitro and in vivo the expression of the co-stimulatory B7. 1/B7.2 molecules, and the subsequent stimulatory activity for T helper cells in stimulated macrophages. The higher effectiveness of the VPAC1 agonist compared with the VPAC2 agonist suggests that VPAC1 is the major mediator of the anti-inflammatory action of VIP. Since VIP and the two agonists appear to affect multiple cytokines and inflammatory factors, they might provide a more efficient therapeutical alternative to the use of specific cytokine antibodies or antagonists.
This article was published in Eur J Immunol
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuroimmunology