alexa Anti-retroviral therapy with protease inhibitors decreases virulence enzyme expression in vivo by Candida albicans without selection of avirulent fungus strains or decreasing their anti-mycotic susceptibility.

Author(s): De Bernardis F, Tacconelli E, Mondello F, Cataldo A, Arancia S,

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Abstract Highly active anti-retroviral therapies (HAART) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors (PIs) or nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) were compared for their effect on prevalence, aspartyl proteinase (Sap) production and the biotypes and anti-mycotic sequential susceptibility of Candida spp. isolates from the oral cavity in a longitudinal prospective study. HAART-PI, but not HAART-NNRTI strongly inhibited Sap expression in the oral cavity without exerting any consistent effect on the role of Candida spp. isolation or selection of low virulence or anti-mycotic resistant fungus biotype. More importantly, the sequential isolates of Candida albicans from HAART-PI, but not those from suspended HAART-NNRTI, showed an increased Sap production in vitro. While further demonstrating that HIV-PI inhibit Sap expressions, our results do not support the view that the mentioned inhibition could eliminate Candida or its selection of the oral cavity. This article was published in FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol and referenced in

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