Author(s): Hill PG, McMillan SA
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Abstract Coeliac disease (CD), caused by an inappropriate T-cell-mediated immune response to the ingestion of cereal proteins in genetically susceptible individuals, is a common disorder with a prevalence of about 1\% in Caucasian populations. It has a strong association with other autoimmune disorders, particularly type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroid disease. Although primarily affecting the small bowel, CD is a multisystem disorder and the adult or child patient may initially present to a wide range of clinical specialties. The concept of the 'coeliac iceberg' has been used to emphasize that many cases currently remain undiagnosed. The identification of tissue transglutaminase (TGA)-2 as the antigen against which the autoantibodies are directed has led to a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of CD and to the development of improved serological tests. Enzyme-linked immunoassays using human tissue TGA as antigen have high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for the detection of CD. This review examines the evidence for adopting IgA anti-tissue TGA as the first-line diagnostic test for CD. It recommends a laboratory algorithm for the use and interpretation of TGA to enable the clinical laboratory to play a full part in detecting and monitoring a disorder that is eminently treatable once the diagnosis has been considered and confirmed.
This article was published in Ann Clin Biochem
and referenced in Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics