Author(s): Ganfornina MD, Do Carmo S, Martnez E, Tolivia J, Navarro A,
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Abstract Glial cells are a key element to the process of axonal regeneration, either promoting or inhibiting axonal growth. The study of glial derived factors induced by injury is important to understand the processes that allow or preclude regeneration, and can explain why the PNS has a remarkable ability to regenerate, while the CNS does not. In this work we focus on Apolipoprotein D (ApoD), a Lipocalin expressed by glial cells in the PNS and CNS. ApoD expression is strongly induced upon PNS injury, but its role has not been elucidated. Here we show that ApoD is required for: (1) the maintenance of peripheral nerve function and tissue homeostasis with age, and (2) an adequate and timely response to injury. We study crushed sciatic nerves at two ages using ApoD knock-out and transgenic mice over-expressing human ApoD. The lack of ApoD decreases motor nerve conduction velocity and the thickness of myelin sheath in intact nerves. Following injury, we analyze the functional recovery, the cellular processes, and the protein and mRNA expression profiles of a group of injury-induced genes. ApoD helps to recover locomotor function after injury, promoting myelin clearance, and regulating the extent of angiogenesis and the number of macrophages recruited to the injury site. Axon regeneration and remyelination are delayed without ApoD and stimulated by excess ApoD. The mRNA and protein expression profiles reveal that ApoD is functionally connected in an age-dependent manner to specific molecular programs triggered by injury.
This article was published in Glia
and referenced in Journal of Clinical Toxicology