Author(s): Kutuk O, Basaga H
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Abstract 4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE) is one of the most abundant aldehyde components of ox-LDL and it exerts various effects on intracellular and extracellular signaling cascades. In this mini-review, a brief synopsis of HNE-modulated signaling pathways will be presented mainly focused on cell death, including recent studies from our laboratory. The results of a number of studies demonstrate the ability of HNE to induce apoptosis and ROS formation in a dose-dependent manner. Several signaling pathways have been shown to be modulated by HNE, including MAP kinases, PKC isoforms, cell-cycle regulators, receptor tyrosine kinases and caspases. In order to get insight into the mechanisms of apoptotic response by HNE, MAP kinase and caspase activation pathways have been studied in 3T3 fibroblasts; HNE induced early activation of JNK and p38 proteins but down-regulated the basal activity of ERK-1/2. We have shown that HNE-induced release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. Activation of AP-1 along with increased c-Jun and phospho-c-Jun levels could be inhibited by pretreatment of cells with certain molecules such as resveratrol. Additionally, overexpression of dominant negative c-Jun and JNK1 in 3T3 fibroblasts prevented HNE-induced apoptosis, which indicated a role for JNK-c-Jun/AP-1 pathway. JNK-dependent induction of c-Jun/AP-1 activation data in the literature indicates a critical potential role for JNK in the cellular response against toxic products of lipid peroxidation.
This article was published in Redox Rep
and referenced in Biochemistry & Pharmacology: Open Access