Author(s): Chen AK, Reuveny S, Oh SK
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Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have recently made significant progress with multiple clinical trials targeting modulation of immune responses, regeneration of bone, cartilage, myocardia, and diseases like Metachromatic leukodystrophy and Hurler syndrome. On the other hand, the use of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in clinical trials is rather limited mainly due to safety issues. Only two clinical trials, retinal pigment epithelial transplantation and treatment of spinal cord injury were reported. Cell doses per treatment can range between 50,000 and 6 billion cells. The current 2-dimensional tissue culture platform can be used when low cell doses are needed and it becomes impractical when doses above 50 million are needed. This demand for future cell therapy has reinvigorated interests in the use of the microcarrier platform for generating stem cells in a scalable 3-dimensional manner. Microcarriers developed for culturing adherent cell lines in suspension have been used mainly in vaccine production and research purposes. Since MSCs grow as monolayers similar to conventional adherent cell lines, adapting MSCs to a microcarrier based expansion platform has been progressing rapidly. On the other hand, establishing a robust microcarrier platform for hPSCs is more challenging as these cells grow in multilayer colonies on extracellular matrices and are more susceptible to shear stress. This review describes properties of commercially available microcarriers developed for cultivation of anchorage dependent cells and present current achievements for expansion and differentiation of stem cells. Key issues such as microcarrier properties and coatings, cell seeding conditions, medium development and improved bioprocess parameters needed for optimal stem cell systems are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Biotechnol Adv
and referenced in Journal of Tissue Science & Engineering