Author(s): Singh S, Dey A, Sivakumar R
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Abstract This article reviews the recent advances made in the field of human leishmaniasis. Special emphasis is placed upon the application of various molecular tools for accurate and rapid diagnosis, understanding the mechanisms of drug resistance and identification of vaccine candidates. The focus will be on the major role played by recombinant antigens in the immunoserodiagnosis and progress of the Leishmania genome project, which has enabled researchers to design better PCR primers and molecular probes for microarrays. A special interest is placed on the recombinant antigen (rK39) cloned from the Leishmania chagasi kinesin gene and a very recently cloned recombinant antigen (KE16) from the Old World Leishmania donovani species with high sensitivity and specificity. Advances made in the specific PCR primer designed to diagnose and differentiate various species and strains of Leishmania causing visceral and post-kala-azar-dermal leishmaniasis have been covered. Molecular methods (e.g., DNA and protein microarrays) applied to understanding the pathobiology of the parasite, mechanism of host invasion, drug interaction and drug resistance to develop effective therapeutic molecules, gene expression profiling studies that have opened doors to understand many host-parasite relations, effective therapy and vaccine candidates are extensively covered in this review.
This article was published in Expert Rev Mol Diagn
and referenced in Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals