alexa Arginine-rich cell penetrating peptides: from endosomal uptake to nuclear delivery.
Immunology

Immunology

Immunotherapy: Open Access

Author(s): Melikov K, Chernomordik LV

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Abstract Delivery of macromolecules into living cells by arginine-rich cell penetrating peptides (AR-CPPs) is an important new avenue for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. However, to date the mechanism of this delivery remains elusive. Recent data implicate endocytosis in the internalization of AR-CPPs and their macromolecular cargo and also indicate limited delivery of macromolecules into the cell cytoplasm and nucleus. Different types of endocytosis - clathrin-dependent endocytosis, raft/caveolin-dependent endocytosis and macropinocytosis - are all implicated in the uptake of AR-CPPs and their cargo into different cells. Cationic AR-CPPs dramatically increase uptake of conjugated molecules through efficient binding to surface proteoglycans. Whether this increase in binding can assure delivery of a sufficient amount of functionally active macromolecules into the cytoplasm and nucleus or whether there is a specific mechanism by which AR-CPPs facilitate the escape of conjugated cargo from endosomes remains to be understood. This article was published in Cell Mol Life Sci and referenced in Immunotherapy: Open Access

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