alexa Aromatic interactions in model peptide β-hairpins: ring current effects on proton chemical shifts.
Pharmaceutical Sciences

Pharmaceutical Sciences

Journal of Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology

Author(s): Rajagopal A, Aravinda S, Raghothama S, Shamala N, Balaram P, Rajagopal A, Aravinda S, Raghothama S, Shamala N, Balaram P

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Abstract Crystal structures of eight peptide β-hairpins in the sequence Boc-Leu-Phe-Val-Xxx-Yyy-Leu-Phe-Val-OMe revealed that the Phe(2) and Phe(7) aromatic rings are in close spacial proximity, with the centroid-centroid distance (R(cen)) of 4.4-5.4 Å between the two phenyl rings. Proton NMR spectra in chloroform and methanol solution reveal a significant upfield shift of the Phe(7) C(δ,δ') H(2) protons (6.65-7.04 ppm). Specific assignments of the aromatic protons have been carried out in the peptide Boc-Leu-Phe-Val-(D)Pro-(L)Pro-Leu-Phe-Val-OMe (6). The anticipated ring current shifts have been estimated from the aromatic ring geometrics observed in crystals for all eight peptides. Only one of the C(δ,δ') H proton lies in the shielding zone with rapid ring flipping, resulting in averaging between the two extreme chemical shifts. An approximate estimate of the population of conformations, which resemble crystal state orientation, may be obtained. Key nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) between facing Phe side chains provide support for close similarity between the solid state and solution conformation. Temperature dependence of aromatic ring proton chemical shift and line widths for peptide 6 (Boc-Leu-Phe-Val-(D)Pro-(L)Pro-Leu-Phe-Val-OMe) and the control peptide Boc-Leu-Val-Val-(D)Pro-Gly-Leu-Phe-Val-OMe establish an enhanced barrier to ring flipping when the two Phe rings are in proximity. Modeling studies suggest that small, conformational adjustment about C(α)-C(β) (χ(1) ) and C(β)-C(γ) (χ(2) ) bonds of both the Phe residues may be required in order to permit unhindered, uncorrelated flipping of both the Phe rings. The maintenance of the specific aromatic ring orientation in organic solvents provides evidence for significant stabilizing interaction. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This article was published in Biopolymers and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology

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