Author(s): Alarifi S, Ali D, Alkahtani S, Siddiqui MA, Ali BA
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Arsenic is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant, and abnormalities of the skin, lung, kidney, and liver are the most common outcomes of long-term arsenic exposure. This study was designed to investigate the possible mechanisms of genotoxicity induced by arsenic trioxide in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: A mild cytotoxic response of arsenic trioxide was observed in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, as evident by (3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) and lactate dehydrogenase assays after 24 and 48 hours of exposure. Arsenic trioxide elicited a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in glutathione (15.67\% and 26.52\%), with a concomitant increase in malondialdehyde level (67.80\% and 72.25\%; P < 0.01), superoxide dismutase (76.42\% and 81.09\%; P < 0.01), catalase (73.33\% and 76.47\%; P < 0.01), and reactive oxygen species generation (44.04\% and 56.14\%; P < 0.01) after 24 and 48 hours of exposure, respectively. Statistically significant (P < 0.01) induction of DNA damage was observed by the comet assay in cells exposed to arsenic trioxide. It was also observed that apoptosis occurred through activation of caspase-3 and phosphatidylserine externalization in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells exposed to arsenic trioxide. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that arsenic trioxide induces apoptosis and genotoxicity in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells through reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress.
This article was published in Onco Targets Ther
and referenced in Journal of Cancer Science & Therapy