Author(s): Salmi AA, Zaki NM, Zakaria R, Nor Aliza AG, Rasool AH
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Abstract BACKGROUND: This study aims to determine whether gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased arterial stiffness, inflammatory and pro-atherogenic markers compared to age matched controls. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study involving 53 pregnant women in the early third trimester of pregnancy consisting of 31 women with normal pregnancy and 22 women with GDM. Subjects were grouped into GDM and control groups based on modified oral glucose tolerance test results; they were considered GDM if fasting blood glucose (FBG) was ≥ 6.1 mmol/L and/or the two hours post-glucose intake was ≥ 7.8 mmol/L. Arterial stiffness was assessed non-invasively using the parameters augmentation index (AIx) obtained via pulse wave analysis and carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), high sensitivity C- reactive protein (hsCRP) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were measured using enzyme linked immunoassay technique (ELISA). Aortic and brachial blood pressure (BP) indices were also recorded. RESULTS: Mean ages and gestational ages (GA) for the control and GDM groups showed no significant differences (31.1 ± 5.68 vs. 32.9 ± 8.46 years; 29.0 ± 2.43 vs. 29.6 ± 1.54 weeks respectively). FBG and 2 hour post-glucose levels were significantly higher in GDM; (5.27 ± 1.19 vs. 3.94 ± 0.44 mmol/L, p < 0.001; 9.66 ± 1.76 vs. 5.68 ± 1.10 mmol/L, p < 0.001). TNF-alpha, PAI-1 and hsCRP levels were significantly higher in GDM compared to controls (0.81 ± 0.15 vs. 0.72 ± 0.13 pg/ml, 54.48 ± 13.07 vs. 36.16 ± 15.58 cm/ml, 7.91 ± 1.16 vs. 6.70 ± 1.45 mg/l respectively). PWV (8.28 ± 1.48 vs. 7.97 ± 1.12) and AIx (16.73 ± 10.98 vs. 16.13 ± 9.64 \%) were not significantly different between the two groups. No significant differences were seen for aortic and brachial BP, mean arterial pressure and body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: The inflammatory markers TNF-alpha and hsCRP, and the pro-atherogenic marker PAI-1 were elevated in GDM compared to age matched controls. No significant difference was seen between the two groups in their arterial stiffness.
This article was published in Vasa
and referenced in Internal Medicine: Open Access