Author(s): Bergqvist D, Prsson H, Sherif A
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Abstract OBJECTIVE: To review published reports on arterio-ureteral fistula. METHOD: Literature search. RESULTS: Eighty cases were identified. Primary fistulas were mainly seen in combination with aortoiliac aneurysmal disease. Secondary fistulas were seen after pelvic cancer surgery, often with radiation, fibrosis and ureteral stenting or after vascular surgery with synthetic grafting. The dominating symptom is massive haematuria, often with circulatory impairment. The clue to a rapid and correct diagnosis is a high degree of suspicion. Most frequently diagnosis has been obtained through angiography or pyelography. When there is a ureteral stent manipulation it will often provoke bleeding and lead to diagnosis. The fistula must be excluded and a vascular reconstruction made. Most frequently this has been obtained through occlusion of the fistula and an extra-anatomic reconstruction (femoro-femoral crossover). Recently stent-grafting has been successfully used but follow-up is short. CONCLUSION: Arterio-ureteral fistula is rare and should be suspected in patients with complicated pelvic surgery and massive haematuria, especially where rigid ureteral stents have been placed.
This article was published in Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg
and referenced in OMICS Journal of Radiology