alexa Articaine hydrochloride: a study of the safety of a new amide local anesthetic.


Emergency Medicine: Open Access

Author(s): Malamed SF, Gagnon S, Leblanc D

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Abstract BACKGROUND: Articaine is an amide local anesthetic introduced clinically in Germany in 1976 and subsequently throughout Europe, Canada and, in 2000, the United States. METHODS: The authors report on three identical single-dose, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, active-controlled multicenter studies that were conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of articaine (4 percent with epinephrine 1:100,000) with that of lidocaine (2 percent with epinephrine 1:100,000). RESULTS: A total of 1,325 subjects participated in these studies, 882 of whom received articaine 4 percent with epinephrine 1:100,000 and 443 of whom received lidocaine 2 percent with epinephrine 1:100,000. The overall incidence of adverse events in the combined studies was 22 percent for the articaine group and 20 percent for the lidocaine group. The most frequently reported adverse events in the articaine group, excluding postprocedural dental pain, were headache (4 percent), facial edema, infection, gingivitis and paresthesia (1 percent each). The incidence of these events was similar to that reported for subjects who received lidocaine. The adverse events most frequently reported as related to articaine use were paresthesia (0.9 percent), hypesthesia (0.7 percent), headache (0.55 percent), infection (0.45 percent), and rash and pain (0.3 percent each). CONCLUSIONS: Articaine is a well-tolerated, safe and effective local anesthetic for use in clinical dentistry.
This article was published in J Am Dent Assoc and referenced in Emergency Medicine: Open Access

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