alexa Ascorbic acid in plants: biosynthesis and function.
Biochemistry

Biochemistry

Enzyme Engineering

Author(s): Smirnoff N, Wheeler GL

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is an abundant component of plants. It reaches a concentration of over 20 mM in chloroplasts and occurs in all cell compartments, including the cell wall. It has proposed functions in photosynthesis as an enzyme cofactor (including synthesis of ethylene, gibberellins and anthocyanins) and in control of cell growth. A biosynthetic pathway via GDP-mannose, GDP-L-galactose, L-galactose, and L-galactono-1,4-lactone has been proposed only recently and is supported by molecular genetic evidence from the ascorbate-deficient vtc 1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. Other pathways via uronic acids could provide minor sources of ascorbate. Ascorbate, at least in some species, is a precursor of tartrate and oxalate. It has a major role in photosynthesis, acting in the Mehler peroxidase reaction with ascorbate peroxidase to regulate the redox state of photosynthetic electron carriers and as a cofactor for violaxanthin de-epoxidase, an enzyme involved in xanthophyll cycle-mediated photoprotection. The hypersensitivity of some of the vtc mutants to ozone and UV-B radiation, the rapid response of ascorbate peroxidase expression to (photo)-oxidative stress, and the properties of transgenic plants with altered ascorbate peroxidase activity all support an important antioxidative role for ascorbate. In relation to cell growth, ascorbate is a cofactor for prolyl hydroxylase that posttranslationally hydroxylates proline residues in cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins required for cell division and expansion. Additionally, high ascorbate oxidase activity in the cell wall is correlated with areas of rapid cell expansion. It remains to be determined if this is a causal relationship and, if so, what is the mechanism. Identification of the biosynthetic pathway now opens the way to manipulating ascorbate biosynthesis in plants, and, along with the vtc mutants, this should contribute to a deeper understanding of the proposed functions of this multifaceted molecule. This article was published in Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol and referenced in Enzyme Engineering

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

  • 3rd International Conference on Genetic and Protein Engineering
    Nov 02-Nov 03, 2017 Las Vegas, USA

Relevant Topics

OMICS International Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

agrifoodaquavet@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

clinical_biochem@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

business@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

chemicaleng_chemistry@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

environmentalsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

engineering@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

generalsci_healthcare@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

genetics_molbio@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

immuno_microbio@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

omics@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

materialsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

mathematics_physics@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

medical@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

neuro_psychology@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

pharma@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

social_politicalsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version