alexa Assembling an arsenal: origin and evolution of the snake venom proteome inferred from phylogenetic analysis of toxin sequences.
Microbiology

Microbiology

Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals

Author(s): Fry BG, Wster W

Abstract Share this page

Abstract We analyzed the origin and evolution of snake venom toxin families represented in both viperid and elapid snakes by means of phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of the toxins and related nonvenom proteins. Out of eight toxin families analyzed, five provided clear evidence of recruitment into the snake venom proteome before the diversification of the advanced snakes (Kunitz-type protease inhibitors, CRISP toxins, galactose-binding lectins, M12B peptidases, nerve growth factor toxins), and one was equivocal (cystatin toxins). In two others (phospholipase A(2) and natriuretic toxins), the nonmonophyly of venom toxins demonstrates that presence of these proteins in elapids and viperids results from independent recruitment events. The ANP/BNP natriuretic toxins are likely to be basal, whereas the CNP/BPP toxins are Viperidae only. Similarly, the lectins were recruited twice. In contrast to the basal recruitment of the galactose-binding lectins, the C-type lectins were shown to be Viperidae only, with the alpha-chains and beta-chains resulting from an early duplication event. These results provide strong additional evidence that venom evolved once, at the base of the advanced snake radiation, rather than multiple times in different lineages, with these toxins also present in the venoms of the "colubrid" snake families. Moreover, they provide a first insight into the composition of the earliest ophidian venoms and point the way toward a research program that could elucidate the functional context of the evolution of the snake venom proteome. This article was published in Mol Biol Evol and referenced in Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords