Author(s): Viklund G, Ortqvist E, Wikblad K, Viklund G, Ortqvist E, Wikblad K
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Abstract AIMS: To determine the effects of an empowerment programme on glycaemic control and empowerment, and to study the role of parental involvement. METHODS: The wait-list design is a randomized controlled trial lasting for 6 months, after which the control group participate in the same education programme as the intervention group. After 6 months, data from the two groups are analysed together (pre/post). Thirty-two teenagers with Type 1 diabetes (12-17 years) completed an empowerment group education programme, meeting weekly for 6 weeks. They were also offered an extra meeting together with their parents, which resulted in three groups: together with parents, only parents and no parent involvement at all. HbA(1c) was measured before intervention and after 6, 12, 18 and 24 months, and empowerment before, and 6 and 12 months after. RESULTS: HbA(1c) and empowerment were similar in the intervention group and the control group 6 months after intervention. In pre/post analysis, HbA(1c) was significantly higher 6 and 12 months after intervention in teenagers > 14 years (from 8.4\% to 9.3\%; P < 0.05 to 9.6\%; P < 0.01), but returned to baseline 18 months after the programme. In teenagers < or = 14 years of age, HbA(1c) did not change during the study. The teenagers felt more ready for changes after the programme than before (3.9 sd = 0.5 to 4.1 sd = 0.5; P < 0.05). In the teenagers in the group that involved their parents, there was a significant decrease in HbA(1c) 12 and 24 months after intervention, from 8.9\% (sd = 1.1) to 7.6\% (sd = 1.3; P < 0.05, confidence interval 0.37, 2.26). CONCLUSION: This empowerment programme for teenagers with diabetes showed no positive glycaemic or empowerment effects. Empowerment programmes for diabetic teenagers in early and middle adolescence should include parental involvement.
This article was published in Diabet Med
and referenced in Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research