alexa Association between testicular microlithiasis and primary malignancy of the testis: our experience and review of the literature.
Reproductive Medicine

Reproductive Medicine

Andrology-Open Access

Author(s): Parenti GC, Zago S, Lusa M, Campioni P, Mannella P

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Abstract PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to evaluate the association of testicular microlithiasis with testicular neoplasm, to assess the accuracy of ultrasonography (US) in comparison with histology in detecting microlithiasis, and to identify the prevalent cytohistological features that accompany testicular cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2004 and 2005, 14 patients were referred to us for US examination, 13 of whom underwent surgery for testicular cancer. Their age ranged from 19 to 43 years, except for one patient aged 60. US findings and histological examination were compared to assess the accuracy of US in detecting microlithiasis associated with testicular cancer. RESULTS: In two patients (15.3\%), microlithiasis had been detected in a previous US examination, and two patients (15.3\%) had altered sperm function. At US examination, testicular cancer was associated with microlithiasis in seven out of 13 patients (53.8\%) (the distribution pattern of microlithiasis was intranodular in two, perinodular in two and both intra-and perinodular in three), and colour-Doppler US showed perinodular and intranodular vascularity. Histological evaluation identified nine seminomas, two mixed germ-cell tumours, one embryonal carcinoma, one yolk-sac tumour and one benign Sertoli-cell tumour. In nine (69.2\%) patients, microlithiasis was confirmed at histologic evaluation, and its distribution was intranodular in two, perinodular in five and both intra-and perinodular in two. Tubular hyalinisation was demonstrated in 12 out of 13 patients (92.3\%). CONCLUSIONS: Testicular microlithiasis and poor sperm function represent risk factors for testicular cancer: in our study, 30.6\% of the patients who developed cancer presented these features. At US examination, testicular microlithiasis is often associated with testicular cancer (53.8\%). A high accuracy has been demonstrated for US in detecting microlithiasis (53.8\%) compared with histological evaluation (69.2\%). At histology, tubular hyalinisation (92.3\% of cases) is, with testicular microlithiasis, the most frequent finding in the parenchyma adjacent to testicular cancer. This article was published in Radiol Med and referenced in Andrology-Open Access

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